ASTR 1020 SPRING 2012: PRACTICE PROBLEMS FOR QUIZ #1

1. An atom with 9 protons and 8 electrons is:
a) hydrogen
b) helium
c) negatively charged
d) ionized
e) excited

2. The most energetic region of the Electromagnetic Spectrum is:
a) Gamma Ray region
b) Visible region
c) Ultraviolet region
d) Radio region
e) Infrared region

3. The Sun:
a) is the most luminous star in the galaxy
b) is 100 A.U. from the Earth
c) has a surface (i.e., photospheric) temperature of 10,000,000K
d) has a diameter 100 times that of the Earth
e) has a luminosity of 4 X 102 Watts

4. The filament in Light Bulb A has a temperature that is three times that in Light Bulb B. Therefore:
a) The wavelength of the peak of the spectrum of Bulb A is three times that of Bulb B
b) The wavelength of the peak of the spectrum of Bulb A is 1/3rd that of Bulb B
c) The wavelength of the peak of the spectrum of Bulb A is the same as that of Bulb B
d) The wavelength of the peak of the spectrum of Bulb A is nine times that of Bulb B
e) The wavelength of the peak of the spectrum of Bulb A is 1/9th that of Bulb B

5. A photon of light with a wavelength of 8 X 10-7 meters has an energy of:
a) Half that of a photon with a wavelength of 4 X 10-7 meters.
b) Twice that of a photon with a wavelength of 4 X 10-7 meters.
c) The same as that of a photon with a wavelength of 4 X 10-7 meters.
d) Four times that of a photon with a wavelength of 4 X 10-7 meters.
e) One quarter that of a photon with a wavelength of 4 X 10-7 meters.

6. The temperature at which water freezes is:
a) 0K.
b) -273K.
c) 273K.
d) 373K.
e) 100K.

7. Star A emits most of its light in the visible part of the spectrum, Star B emits most of its light in the ultraviolet, while Star C emits most of its light in the infrared. Therefore:
a) Star A is hotter than Star B, and Star B is hotter than Star C.
b) Star C is hotter than Star B, and Star B is hotter than Star A.
c) Star B is hotter than Star A, and Star A is hotter than Star C.
d) Star A is hotter than Star C, and Star C is hotter than Star B.
e) Star C is hotter than Star A, and Star A is hotter than Star B.

8. An atom of 13C has:
a) 6 protons and 6 neutrons.
b) 7 protons and 6 neutrons.
c) 5 protons and 6 neutrons.
d) 6 protons and 7 neutrons.
e) 5 protons and 8 neutrons.

9. Which of the following is true about the Sun?
a) It is slowly shrinking with time, due to its gravity.
b) It is in equilibrium, with gravity balanced by gas pressure.
c) It is a hot solid object, like a filament in a light bulb.
d) It is the most luminous star in the sky.
e) It is about the same physical size as the Earth.

10. The mass of a neutron is:
a) About the same as that of a proton.
b) About the same as that of an electron.
c) About 2000 times larger than that of a proton.
d) About 2000 times less than that of a proton.
e) About the same as that of a carbon atom.

11. A 2H atom has:
a) 2 protons.
b) 2 neutrons.
c) 2 electrons.
d) 1 proton and 1 neutron.
e) 2 neutrinos.

12. Star A has a surface temperature of 5000K, while Star B has a surface temperature of 10,000K. Therefore the wavelength of the peak of the spectrum of Star A is:
a) Half that of the wavelength of the peak of the spectrum of Star B.
b) Twice that of the wavelength of the peak of the spectrum of Star B.
c) The same as the wavelength of the peak of the spectrum of Star B.
d) Four times that of the wavelength of the peak of the spectrum of Star B.
e) One quarter that of the wavelength of the peak of the spectrum of Star B.

13. If an electron escapes from an atom, the atom that is left behind is called:
a) an isotope.
b) an ion.
c) an excited atom.
d) a redshifted atom.
e) a blueshifted atom.

14. The distance from the Earth to the Sun is:
a) an astronomical unit.
b) a light year.
c) a billion miles.
d) 50,000 kilometers.
e) 8.3 arcseconds.

15. Kinetic energy is:
a) Energy of motion.
b) Stored energy.
c) Energy carried in light.
d) Chemical potential energy.
e) Gravitational potential energy.

16. Which of the following lists the six regimes of the electromagnetic spectrum in the correct order, from shortest wavelength to longest wavelength?
a) Gamma Rays, X-Rays, Infrared, Visible, Ultraviolet, Radio.
b) Gamma Rays, X-Rays, Visible, Ultraviolet, Infrared, Radio.
c) Gamma Rays, UV, Visible, Infrared, X-Rays, Radio.
d) Gamma Rays, X-Rays, UV, Visible, Infrared, Radio.
e) Radio, Infrared, Visible, UV, Gamma Rays, X-Rays.

17. Zero degrees Kelvin is:
a) the boiling point of water.
b) the freezing point of water.
c) Zero degrees Celsius.
d) the boiling point of nitrogen.
e) absolute zero.

18. Radiative energy is:
a) energy of motion.
b) energy stored for future use.
c) energy from nuclear power plants.
d) energy carried by light.
e) energy used by car radiators.

19. A 4He atom has:
a) 4 protons and 4 neutrons.
b) 4 protons and 0 neutrons.
c) 3 protons and 1 neutron.
d) 2 protons and 2 neutrons.
e) 1 protons and 3 neutrons.

20. The location of a specific atom in the Periodic Table is determined by:
a) The number of electrons in the atom.
b) The number of protons in the atom.
c) The number of neutrons in the atom.
d) The temperature of the atom.
e) The total number of protons and electrons in the atom.

21. What holds the nuclei of atoms together?
a) The gravitational force
b) The electromagnetic force
c) The strong force
d) The weak force
e) The electroweak force

22. The full Moon has an angular size of 1800 arcseconds. How many arcminutes is this?
a) 18 arcminutes
b) 180 arcminutes
c) 0.5 arcminutes
d) 30 arcminutes
e) 1 arcminute

23. Which of the following gives the correct order for the following types of light, in terms of the energy of carried by the light (starting with the MOST energetic first)?
a) blue, orange, infrared, ultraviolet, microwaves.
b) orange, blue, ultraviolet, infrared, microwaves.
c) ultraviolet, blue, orange, infrared, microwaves.
d) ultraviolet, blue, orange, microwaves, infrared.
e) microwaves, infrared, orange, blue, ultraviolet.

24. An atom with 4 protons, 3 electrons, and 4 neutrons is:
a) positively charged.
b) helium.
c) an isotope of an atom with 3 protons, 3 electrons, and 4 neutrons.
d) an ion of an atom with 3 protons, 3 electrons, and 4 neutrons.
e) an isotope of an atom with 4 protons, 2 electrons, and 4 neutrons.

25. In the core of the Sun:
a) The atoms are essentially all ionized.
b) Positrons are being produced.
c) Neutrinos are being produced.
d) Hydrogen is being converted into helium.
e) All of the above.

26. The frequency of light:
a) has units of meters.
b) has units of seconds.
c) has units of seconds2.
d) is directly proportional to its wavelength.
e) is directly proportional to its energy.

27. The theory of neutrino oscillations says:
a) neutrinos oscillate around the core of the Sun; they cannot escape the Sun's gravitational field.
b) neutrinos oscillate back and forth inside the Sun; they cannot penetrate through the outer layer of the Sun.
c) a neutrino is about the same mass as a proton.
d) neutrinos are massless.
e) neutrinos change from one type of neutrino to another type of neutrino.

28. An observer views two 100-Watt light bulbs. Bulb A is 1 meter away; Bulb B is 5 meters away. To the observer,
a) Bulb A appears 5 times brighter than Bulb B.
b) Bulb A appears 25 times brighter than Bulb B.
c) Bulb A appears 50 times brighter than Bulb B.
d) Bulb B appears 5 times brighter than Bulb A.
e) Bulb A and Bulb B have the same brightness.

29. The closest stars to us (beside the Sun), the alpha Centauri triplet, are approximately:
a) 8.3 light minutes away.
b) 8.3 A.U. away.
c) 4.3 A.U. away.
d) 4.3 light years away.
e) 8.3 light years away.

30. Star A and Star B have the same radius, but the temperature of Star A is three times that of star B. Therefore:
a) Star A is three times more luminous than Star B.
b) Star A is nine times more luminous than Star B.
c) Star A is 27 times more luminous than Star B.
d) Star A is 81 times more luminous than Star B.
e) Star A and Star B have the same luminosity.

31. Star A has a parallax shift of 0.2 arcseconds. Therefore:
a) Star A is 1/0.2 = 5 light years away from us.
b) Star A is 1/0.1 = 10 light years away from us.
c) Star A is 1/0.2 = 5 parsecs away from us.
d) Star A is 1/0.1 = 10 parsecs away from us.
e) Star A is 0.2 parsecs away from us.

32. Barnard's Star has a stellar parallax of 0.5 arcseconds. This means:
a) Barnard's Star is 0.5 light years away.
b) Barnard's Star is 0.5 parsecs away.
c) Barnard's Star is 2 light years away.
d) Barnard's Star is 2 parsecs away.
e) Barnard's Star is moving through space at a rate of 0.5 arcseconds/year.

33. A parsec is a unit of:
a) distance.
b) time.
c) angle.
d) magnitude.
e) brightness.

34. The radiative zone in the Sun is:
a) the location where nuclear fusion occurs, and high energy radiation is produced.
b) the layer of the Sun that we see in visible light.
c) the layer of the Sun where the absorption lines are produced.
d) the layer of the Sun between the core and the convective zone.
e) the layer of the Sun where energy is carried mainly by gas motions.

35. An atom will emit light at a particular wavelength when an electron in the atom:
a) escapes from the atom
b) drops to an inner orbit
c) jumps to a higher orbit
d) collides with an atom
e) becomes a proton

36. Deuterium is:
a) 1H.
b) 2H.
c) 2He.
d) 4He.
e) A neutral subatomic particle with a mass less than 1/2000th that of an electron.

37. Star A has a photospheric temperature of 3000K, while Star B's photospheric temperature is 6000K. The wavelength of the peak of the spectrum of Star A is therefore:
a) Two times that of Star B.
b) One half that of Star B.
c) The same as that of Star B.
d) Four times that of Star B.
e) One quarter that of Star B.

38. A 13N+ atom has:
a) 13 protons, 13 neutrons, 12 electrons.
b) 6 protons, 7 neutrons, 5 electrons.
c) 7 protons, 6 neutrons, 6 electrons.
d) 7 protons, 7 neutrons, 6 electrons.
e) 7 protons, 6 neutrons, 8 electrons.

39. An arcsecond is:
a) 1/3600th of a second.
b) 1/3600th of a degree.
c) 1/60th of a degree.
d) 60 degrees.
e) The distance light travels in a second.

40. A solar luminosity is:
a) 3.9 X 1026 Joules.
b) 3.9 X 1026 Hertz.
c) 3.9 X 1026 Watts.
d) 3.9 X 1026 light years.
e) 3.9 X 1026 astronomical units.

41. Wien's Law states that the wavelength of the peak of the spectrum of an object emitting thermal radiation is:
a) proportional to the temperature of the object.
b) inversely proportional to the temperature of the object.
c) inversely proportional to the square of the temperature of the object.
d) proportional to the frequency of the light at that wavelength.
e) proportional to the energy of the light at that wavelength.

42. A positron is:
a) a proton that has escaped from an atom.
b) an anti-electron.
c) an atom that has lost an electron.
d) a negatively-charged proton.
e) a high energy photon of light.

43. What is produced in the FIRST step of the proton-proton chain in the Sun?
a) 4He
b) 3He
c) a deuterium nucleus, a neutrino, and a positron.
d) 3H.
e) 4H and neutrinos.

44. The mass of an electron is:
a) approximately equal to that of a proton.
b) approximately equal to that of a neutron.
c) equal to that of a positron.
d) equal to that of a neutrino.
e) zero.

45. The process of hydrogen being converted into helium is called:
a) Ionization.
b) Excitation.
c) Fission.
d) Fusion.
e) Neutrino oscillations.

46. The neutrino experiment in the Homestake Gold Mine in South Dakota detected only about 1/3 of the predicted number of neutrinos, based on calculations of the nuclear reactions in the Sun. This is probably because:
a) Neutrinos are not really neutrally charged, they are actually positively-charged particles.
b) Neutrinos are not particles, they are just a type of photon of light.
c) Neutrinos are anti-electrons.
d) Neutrinos oscillate from one form to another.
e) Neutrinos can never escape from the Sun.

47. The temperature 473K is equal to:
a) 0 degrees Celsius.
b) 100 degrees Celsius.
c) 200 degrees Celsius.
d) 473 degrees Celsius.
e) 600 degrees Celsius.

48. The answer to 8 X 108/4 X 10-3 is:
a) 2 X 105
b) 2 X 1011
c) 2 X 1024
d) 2 X 10-24
e) 4 X 105

49. If the temperature of a burner on your stove is increased:
a) It emits more light per second, and the wavelength of the peak of its spectrum increases.
b) It emits more light per second, and the wavelength of the peak of its spectrum decreases.
c) It emits less light per second, and the wavelength of the peak of its spectrum increases.
d) It emits less light per second, and the wavelength of the peak of its spectrum decreases.
e) It emits more light per second, but the wavelength of the peak of its spectrum does not change.

50. In atoms of all chemical elements except hydrogen, there is more than one positively-charged proton. What prevents the nuclei of atoms from flying apart?
a) The weak force
b) The electroweak force
c) The gravitational force
d) The electromagnetic force
e) The strong force

51. What is the correct order of the following types of light, in terms of their frequency, from HIGHEST to LOWEST?
a) radio, infrared, red, green, ultraviolet, X-rays.
b) X-rays, ultraviolet, green, red, infrared, radio.
c) X-rays, infrared, green, red, ultraviolet, radio.
d) radio, ultraviolet, red, green, infrared, X-rays.
e) X-rays, radio, ultraviolet, infrared, red, green.

52. The Sun is:
a) 8.3 light minutes away.
b) 8.3 light years away.
c) 8.3 A.U. away.
d) 8.3 arcminutes away.
e) 8.3 parsecs away.

53. Which of the following pairs of particles have the same mass?
a) a proton and an electron.
b) an electron and a neutron.
c) a positron and a proton.
d) a positron and an electron.
e) a proton and a neutrino.

54. In the proton-proton chain sequence of nuclear reactions, when a deuterium nucleus is fused with an 1H nucleus, what is produced?
a) a 4He nucleus
b) a 3He nucleus
c) a 6C nucleus, a neutrino, and a positron.
d) a 3H nucleus.
e) a 4H nucleus and a neutrino.

55. When an electron in an atom gains energy and jumps to a higher energy level in the atom, this process is called:
a) ionization.
b) fusion.
c) excitation.
d) fission.
e) oscillation.

56. The strong force is responsible for:
a) keeping electrons bound to the nuclei of atoms.
b) the gravitational force that keeps the Earth in orbit around the Sun.
c) keeping the nuclei of atoms together.
d) causing two positively-charged atoms to repel each other.
e) causing annihilation when an electron and positron collide.

57. The temperature 212 degrees Fahrenheit is equal to:
a) 0 degrees Kelvin.
b) 100 degrees Kelvin.
c) 273 degrees Kelvin.
d) 373 degrees Kelvin.
e) 473 degrees Kelvin.

58. An observer views two 100-Watt light bulbs. Bulb A is 1 meter away; Bulb B is 4 meters away. To the observer,
a) Bulb A appears 4 times brighter than Bulb B.
b) Bulb A appears 16 times brighter than Bulb B.
c) Bulb A appears 1/4 as bright as Bulb B.
d) Bulb A appears 1/16th as bright as Bulb B.
e) Bulb A and Bulb B have the same brightness.

Answers: 1d, 2a, 3d, 4b, 5a, 6c, 7c, 8d, 9b, 10a, 11d, 12b, 13b, 14a, 15a, 16d, 17e, 18d, 19d, 20b, 21c, 22d, 23c, 24a, 25e, 26e, 27e, 28b, 29d, 30d, 31c, 32d, 33a, 34d, 35b, 36b, 37a, 38c, 39b, 40c, 41b, 42b, 43c, 44c, 45d, 46d, 47c, 48b, 49b, 50e, 51b, 52a, 53d, 54b, 55c, 56c, 57d, 58b.