Historical Foundations
Chapter 4

Historical Foundations
Identify events that served as catalysts for physical education, exercise science, and sport’s growth.
Identify some of the outstanding leaders in the fields.
Discuss recent developments in physical education, exercise science, and sport.
Draw implications from history of our fields for the future of physical education, exercise science, and sport

Sport History
Emerged as a subdiscipline in the late 1960s
and early 1970s.
“… field of scholarly inquiry with multiple and often intersecting foci, including exercise, the body, play, games, athletics, sports, physical recreations, health, and leisure.” (Struna)
How has the past shaped sport and its experiences today?
1973: North American Society for Sport History held its first meeting.

Sample Areas of Study...
How did urbanization influence the development of sports in America?
How did the sports activities of Native Americans influence the recreational pursuits of the early colonists?
How have Greek ideals influences the development of sportsmanship?
How did segregation impact sports opportunities for blacks?
What factors influenced the inclusion of physical education in the school curriculum?

Greece
“Golden Age” of physical education and sport
Unity of the mind, body and spirit
“Body beautiful”
Arete – the pursuit of excellence
Vital part of the education of every Greek boy
National festivals
Olympic Games

Rome
Exercise for health and military purposes.
Greek gymnastics were introduced to Rome after the conquest of Greece but were not popular
Rome did not believe in the “body beautiful”
Preferred to be spectators rather than participants
Preferred professionalism to amateurism.
Exciting “blood sports”: gladiatorial combats and chariot races. “Duel to the death” or satisfaction of spectators.

Germany
Period of nationalism - focus on development of strong citizens through school and community programs of physical education
Physical education should be included in the school curriculum – programs emphasizes the development of strength
Jahn (1778-1852) – Turnverein movement to mold youth into strong, hardy citizens capable of overthrowing foreign control

Sweden
Scientific study of physical education
Use anatomy and physiology to study the effects of physical education on the body
Exercises use Swedish apparatus - Per Ling (1776-1839)
Design of gymnastic programs to meet specific individual needs
3 Types: Educational gymnastics, military gymnastics, and medical gymnastics
Teachers of physical education must have foundational knowledge of the effects of exercise on the human body.

Great Britain
Home of outdoor sports
Maclaren (1920-1884)
Eager to make physical training a science; a system that was adopted by the British Army
Health is more important than strength
Exercise adapted to the individual
Physical education essential in school curriculum

Muscular Christianity
Sport contributes to the development of moral character
Reconciles sport and religion

PE in the U.S.
Influenced by European ideals
Systems of gymnastics (exercises)
Philosophies of physical education
Growth of influence of Ancient Asian cultures
Yoga
Martial arts
Relationships between the mind, body, and spirit

Colonial Period (1607-1783)
Colonists led an agrarian existence - physical activity through performing tasks essential to living and survival.
Colonists brought sports with them from their native lands.
Puritans denounced play as evil; recreational pursuits frowned upon.
Reading, writing, and arithmetic in schools, not physical education.

National Period (1784-1861)
Growth of private schools for females
Introduction of German gymnastics to schools
1852: First intercollegiate competition: a crew race between Harvard and Yale.
Catherine Beecher (1800-1878)
Calisthenics performed to music
One of the first to advocate for daily physical education
Invention of baseball
Horseracing, foot races, rowing, and gambling on sport events popular

Civil War Period until 1900
Turnverein societies continue to grow and include both girls and boys
Dio Lewis
Programs for the “weak and feeble” in society
Training school for teachers in Boston
Inclusion of gymnastic programs in the schools
Nissen - Swedish Movement Cure grows in popularity and recognized for its inherent medical values
YMCA established; international training school at Springfield College

Civil War Period until 1900
Growth of American sport in popularity
Tennis
Golf
Bowling
Basketball (Naismith)
Founding of forerunner of Amateur Athletic Association (AAU)
Revival of Olympics in Athens
Colleges and universities develop departments and expand programs

Civil War Period until 1900
Expansion of intercollegiate athletics
Abuses raise concerns
Establishment of governing bodies
Emphasis on teacher preparation, scientific basis of PE, diagnosis and prescription of activity
Organized PE programs in elementary and secondary schools
1885 - Founding of the forerunner of AAHPERD
“Battle of the Systems”

Early Twentieth Century (1900s-1940s)
Extensive interscholastic programs - controversy over programs for girls
Growth of intramural programs and emphasis on games and sports in our programs
Increased concern for the physically underdeveloped in our society
Playground movement
Higher standards for teacher training (4 year preparation)
NCAA established to monitor collegiate athletics

World War I (1916-1919)
Physical educators developed conditioning programs for armed forces .
After the war, health statistics revealed that the nation was in poor shape (1/3 of men were physically unfit for armed service).
Growth and upgrade of PE programs in schools following war due to legislation in some states.

Golden Twenties (1920-1929)
Move away from formal systems of gymnastics toward games, sports, and valuable recreation and leisure time.
“New” physical education emphasized contribution to the total development of the individual; “education through the physical” vs. “education of the physical”.
Calls for reform of collegiate athletics due to increasing professionalism, public entertainment, and commercialization.
Women’s programs increase staff, activities, required participation, and facilities.

Depression Years (1930-1939)
Economic forces lead to cutbacks in PE programs and growth of recreational programs.
Physical educators more involved in recreational programs for the unemployed.
Growth of interscholastic, intercollegiate and women’s programs.
Charles McCloy (1886-1959) – advocated “education of the physical” and stressed the importance documenting results and measuring progress of using scientific data

Mid-twentieth Century (1940-1970)
Impact of WW II physical training programs
Physical fitness movement
President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports
Athletics
Increase opportunities for girls and women
Increased interest in lifetime sports
Sport programs below high school level increase
Increased number of intramural programs
Professional preparation
Colleges and universities increase programs for teachers
American College of Sports Medicine (1954)
National Athletic Trainers’ Association (1950)
Programs for individuals with disabilities
Special Olympics (1968)
Research grows in importance and becomes increasingly specialized

Significant Recent Developments
Emergence of subdisciplines
Disease prevention and health promotion
Healthy People
Objectives for the Nation
Surgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity and Health
Healthy People 2000
Healthy People 2010
Legislation promoting opportunities for girls and women, and people with disabilities
Increased technology

School Physical Education
Recognition of the critical role school PE in achieving national health goals
Fitness status and physical activity of children and youth is a concern
Congressional support for high-quality, daily physical education
Daily PE declines from 42% in 1991 to 28% in 2003.
Only one state, Illinois, requires daily PE for all students, K-12
National Content Standards offer a national framework
Emergence of new curricular models

Physical Fitness and Participation in Physical Activity
Expansion of the fitness movement and involvement in physical activity
Shift from performance- to health-related fitness to an emphasis on moderate-intensity physical activity
Physical inactivity recognized as a major health problem

The Growth of Sport
Phenomenal growth of participation in sports at all levels
Youth sports involve more than 25 million children
Interscholastic sports involve more than 6 million boys and girls
Trend toward early specialization
Intercollegiate sports involves nearly 400,000 athletes
Growth of sport as “big business” in some institutions
Growth of recreational sport leagues and amateur sports for adults of all ages
Professional sports continue to expand including professional leagues for women

Girls and Women in Sport
Rapid growth since the passage of Title IX in 1972
Changes in governance of intercollegiate sports
Challenges to Title IX
Changes in physical education classes following passage of Title IX

Programs for Individuals with Disabilities
Federal Legislation
PL 94-142 Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975
Amateur Sports Act of 1978
PL 101-336 Americans with Disabilities Act
Paralympics

Olympics
Rebirth of the Olympics in 1896
Centennial Olympics celebrated in Atlanta in 1996
Politicization of the Olympic Games
Evolving definitions of amateurism
“Fairness” issues in the Olympics
Addition of non-traditional sports
Commercialization of the Olympics

Technology
Computer technology and sophisticated research equipment
Has led to record-breaking achievements for elite athletes in nearly all sports
Facility improvement
Fitness tests data available in schools with addition of heart rate monitors