Exercise Physiology & Fitness
nWhat is exercise physiology?
nWhat is the role of physical activity and exercise in achieving physical fitness and health?
nHow do you use the FITT formula to design a fitness program?
nWhat are the contributors and deterrents to fitness?
nThe study of the effects of exercise on the body.
nBody’s responses and adaptations to exercises
nSystem to subcellular level
nAcute (short term) to chronic (long term) adaptations
nPeople of all ages and abilities
nSpecialized area of study - mid 1960s and 1970s.
nLate 1800s, the use of anthropometry to measure changes in students’ development after training programs.
nMcKenzie: Investigating effects of exercise on various systems of the body and the idea of preventative medicine (early 1900s)
nAfter WWII: increased interest in fitness as a result of youth fitness tests and the results of the physicals of men in the military.
n1970s: APS recognized exercise physiology as a specialized area of physiology.
n1974: ACSM: Guidelines for Graded Exercise Testing and Prescription
n1980s and 1990s: Understanding of the relationship between physical activity and health.
n1996:Surgeon General’s Report Physical Activity & Health
n2000: 1st certification exams for Clinical Exercise Physiologists
Areas of Study
nEffects of various exercises on various systems of the body
nRelationship of energy metabolism to performance
nEffectiveness of training programs
nEffects of environmental factors on performance
nIdentification of factors that limit performance
nEffectiveness of various rehabilitation programs
nErgogenic aids and exercise
nHealth and therapeutic effects associated with exercise
nEffects of nutrition on performance
nAssessment of cardiovascular functioning
nPrevention of cardiovascular disease
nRehabilitation of individuals with the disease
nEffects of exercise at the cellular level
nExercise epidemiology: Relationship between physical activity and mortality
nPediatric exercise science:Scientific study of the response of the body to exercise during childhood and maturation.
nAbility of the body’s systems to function efficiently and effectively.
nIndividuals who are “physically fit” have the ability to:
n“carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness, without undue fatigue, and with ample energy to enjoy leisure-time pursuits and to meet unforeseen emergencies.”
Physical Activity and Health
nChronic disease – major threat to health today
nDiseases caused by insufficient physical activity, often in conjunction with inappropriate dietary practices.
nCoronary heart disease, hypertension, osteoporosis, non-insulin diabetes, chronic back pain, and obesity
Physical Inactivity & Health
nInactivity a risk factor for several diseases
nIndividuals who lead a sedentary lifestyle have increased risk of morbidity and mortality.
nInactive individuals have almost twice the risk of CHD as those who are active
nThe degree of risk is similar to cigarette smoking, hypertension, and obesity.
nWhat kind of activity?
nHow much time spent in activity?
nAt what intensity should it be performed?
nHow often in order to see benefits?
nThere is an inverse and generally linear relationship for rates of all-cause mortality, total CVD, and CHD incidence and mortality and for the incidence of type 2 diabetes.
nAccumulation of at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity PA on most days of the week is associated with a significant 20%-30% reduction in all-cause mortality.
nAdditional benefits can be derived from increasing the amount and/or intensity of physial activity.
nEnhanced cardiovascular function
nReduction of many cardiovascular disease risk factors
nIncrease ability to perform tasks of daily living
nReduced risk of muscle and joint injury
nImproved work performance
nImproved physical appearance, self-image, and sound mental health
nReduction of susceptibility to depression and anxiety
nManagement of stress
nEnhancement of self-concept and esteem
nSocialization through participation in physical activities
nImproved overall general motor performance
nResistance to fatigue
nMitigate the debilitating effects of old-age or retain a more desirable level of health for a longer period of time
Energy Production for PA
nUse of ATP as energy to perform muscular activity. Two ways to produce ATP:
nHigh energy expenditure, short time (6-60 seconds)
nLower rate of energy expenditure, longer period of time (more than 3 minutes)
Principles of Fitness Training
nPrinciple of overload
nTo improve, perform exercises that exceed one’s normal level.
nPrinciple of specificity
nDesign program to reflect specific goals.
nAssess individual’s initial fitness level
nEstablish starting point and design realistic program.
nProgression of program
nRevise program as individual’s level of fitness changes.
Principles of Fitness Training
nConsider individual’s work, diet, & lifestyle in program design.
nWarm-up, workout, cooldown components
nHelps prevent injury and prepares body for exercise as well as returns it to a normal state.
nMedical screening & environmental conditions
nMotivation of individual to adhere to fitness program
Planning a Fitness Program
nThreshold of training
nMinimal level of exercise needed to achieve desired benefits.
nDefines the upper limits of training and the optimal level of exercise.
nNeeds and goals of individual
nProgram should meet the goals of the individual
nNumber of sessions each week
nDegree of effort put forth during exercise.
nDuration of activity
nMode of exercise being performed
nBody’s ability to deliver oxygen effectively to the working muscles to perform physical activity.
nMost important component of health fitness.
nHelps prevent hypokinetic disease.
nConcerned with the aerobic efficiency of the body.
nFrequency: 3 to 5 times per week
nIntensity: 55% to 90% HRMAX
nTime: 20 - 30 minutes
nType: Aerobic activities
nHRMAX= 220 bpm - age
nTarget zone = 55% to 90% HRMAX
nLower threshold target HR= HRMAX x 55%
nUpper threshold target HR= HRMAX x 90%
nPercentage of body weight composed of fat as compared with fat-free or lean tissue.
nObesity is associated with numerous health problems and earlier mortality.
nObesity in America
nDetermination of the cause of obesity is important.
nBody composition is influenced by nutrition and physical activity.
nEnergy balance is important to achieving a favorable body composition.
nEnergy expenditure through:
nbasal metabolism (maintenance of essential life functions)
nwork (including exercise)
nexcretion of body wastes
Body Mass Index
nWeight in pounds X 703 divided by height in inches squared
nOften used in large scale surveys because of ease of collecting large amounts of data
nNumber of calories taken into the body as food minus number of calories expended
nCaloric intake equals expenditure.
nMore calories consumed than expended.
nMore calories are expended than consumed.
Body Composition Improvement
nDecreasing percentage of fat
nDecrease caloric intake through diet.
nIncrease caloric expenditure through physical activity and exercise.
nModerate decrease in caloric intake and moderate increase in caloric expenditure.
nFollow sound practices
nObsession with weight loss, in conjunction with many other factors, may contribute to the development of an eating disorder.
Measurement of Body Composition
nSkinfold caliper from selected sites
nUse of formulas to calculate percentage
of body fat
nBody mass index (BMI)
Muscular Strength & Endurance
nMuscular strength is the ability of a muscle or a muscle group to exert a single force against a resistance.
nMuscular endurance is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert force repeatedly or over a period of time.
nMaintenance of proper posture; protect joints.
nProduction of power to enhance performance.
nUse it of lose it!
nMuscle exerts force against an immovable object.
nForce is generated while the muscle is changing in length.
nConcentric and Eccentric contractions
nContractions are performed at a constant velocity
Development of Muscular Strength and Endurance
nPrinciple of Overload is critical.
nRepetition - performance of a movement through the full range of motion.
nSet - number of repetitions performed without rest.
nLow number of repetitions with a heavy resistance.
nHigh number of repetitions with a low resistance
nMaximum range of motion possible at a joint
nJoint specific: better range of motion in some joints than in others.
nCan prevent muscle injuries & low-back pain
nDecreased flexibility can be caused by:
nSedentary lifestyle (lack of use of muscles)
nHigh amounts of body fat
Improvement of Flexibility
nMomentum generated from repeated bouncing to stretch. (Not recommended)
nSlowly moving into a stretching position and holding for a certain period of time (10-30 seconds; 5 times).
nRelaxing of the muscle to be stretched by contracting the opposite muscle (hamstrings/quadriceps)
nMeasurement of flexibility-goniometer
Conducting Fitness Programs
nProvide for cognitive and affective goals as well as physical activity.
nMake fitness enjoyable.
nEstablish goals and a plan of action to attain them.
nProvide for maintenance of fitness.
nFitness requires personal commitment.
Effects of Training
nLower oxygen consumption
nLower pulse rate
nLarger stroke volume
nLower rise in blood pressure
nSlower respiration rate
nLower rate of lactic acid formation
nFaster return to “normal”
Effects of Training
nGreater cardiorespiratory efficiency.
nMore “work” can be performed at less cost.
nImprovement in fitness components.
nCoordination and timing of movements are better.
Physical Activity & Health
nAdults - 30 minutes of physical activity equal to brisk walking on most, preferably all, days of the week.
nChildren – 60 minutes of physical activity on most, preferably all, days of the week
nActivity of greater intensity will yield greater health benefits.
nStrength-developing activities at least twice a week.
nPhysical activity as an integral part of one’s lifestyle.
nHot and humid weather
nUse extreme caution
nHeat cramps, heat exhaustion, heat stroke
nExtreme cold weather
Nutrition and Fitness
nMaintaining water balance is important.
nA well-balanced diet is necessary to obtain all the nutrients required by the body.
nFood pyramid offers guidelines for eating a balanced diet.
nCurrent U.S. diet is too high in fat, cholesterol, sugar, and sodium and lacking in carbohydrates and fiber.
nCarefully monitor caloric intake AND caloric expenditure.
nSpecial diets for special situations.
Dietary Guidelines – Aim, Build, Choose for Good Health
nAim For Fitness
nAim for a healthy weight.
nBe physically active each day.
nBuild A Healthy Base
nLet the Pyramid guide your food choices.
nEat a variety of grains, fruits, and vegetables daily.
nKeep food safe to eat.
nChoose a diet low in saturated fat, cholesterol, and moderate in total fat.
nChoose beverages and foods to moderate intake of sugars.
nChoose and prepare foods with less salt.
nDrink alcoholic beverages in moderation.
nWork-producing substances or phenomena believed to increase performance
nUsed to enhance energy use, production, and/or recovery in quest for improved performance
nStimulant, restricted by IOC – standard up to 6 to 8 cups of coffee
nEnhances muscle tension development, increased alertness, decreased perception of fatigue, increased endurance performance
nEffect depends on dosage and amount of caffeine athlete typically consumes
nSide effects – very rapid heart rate, diuresis, insomnia, nervousness, diarrhea, anxiety
nUsed in endurance events lasting 60 to 90 minutes or longer in order to maintain pace and delay fatigue
nChange training regimen and modify diet to eat more complex carbohydrates than normal in order to store additional glycogen in muscles and liver to provide extra energy
nPre-event meal – 1 to 5 grams of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight 1 to 4 hours prior to event
Hydration and Sports Drinks
nProper hydration is important for safety reasons and to improve performance.
nFluid replacement during exercise is associated with lower heart rate, body core temperature, and levels of perceived exertion.
nWater – 4-6 ounces for every 15-20 minutes of exercise
nSports drinks – add fluid as well as replace lost electrolytes and supply additional carbohydrates
nUsed in an effort to increase stores of muscle phosophocreatine and have more fuel available to support short, high intensity activity
nUsed in conjunction with a resistance training program to maximize muscle strength and increase fat-free mass
nACSM – creatine supplementation enhances exercise performance in events involving short periods of extremely powerful activity, especially during repeated efforts.
nSynthetic forms of male hormone testosterone – testosterone secreted by testes is responsible for the development of masculine characteristics and promotion of growth of tissue, muscle mass, weight, and bone growth
nTaken orally or injected in 10 to 100 times the recommended therapeutic dosage
nBanned by IOC and some sport organizations
nSerious side effects, some irreversible, associated with chronic use including increased risk of heart disease, liver tumors, cancer, hypertension, mood swings, aggressive behavior.