Be sure to also be familiar with the material from handouts in class!


The trail marking symbols (blue, green, black diamond, and the triangle red border around an exclamation point on yellow back ground which is a warning of an obstacle ahead “ski with caution”), comprise the standard international trail marking system.  Remember that these symbols describe only the relative degree of challenge of a particular slope or trail compared with other slopes or trails at this ski area.

When approaching an injured skier, one should stop to erect your skies in an “x” fashion and enlist the aid of a second skier to go for help.


The components of a ready or basic skiing position are to.
        1) keep your feet hip width apart,
        2) have your weight equally distributed on both feet along the entire length of the foot,
        3) have the knees bent until your toes and knee caps are in line, and
        4) keep your hands visible slightly ahead, be relaxed and keep the back slightly rounded.

A well-balanced stance has seven components.
        1. Feet apart
        2. Weight equally distributed on both skies, along entire length of feet, feel the weight
            evenly distributed between ball of the foot and heels.
        3. Ankles and knees flexed.
        4. Back slightly rounded.
        5. Hands visible at waist level-pole baskets behind.
        6. Look ahead.
        7. Not static-constantly moving.

The basic stance for riding skis is common to all good skiers.  Analyze your stance!  90% of all ski errors are a result of not staying in a good well-balanced position.  If you will work on improving your basic ski position, I'm sure your skiing will improve.

Edging movements consist of turning the ski by rolling the ski onto its edge.  It allows you the ability to turn.  It is important to know that knee flexion is required for edging.  The more edging you do, the more knee flexion will take place.


Type I skiers have never skied before or skiers who have skied a little and can make slight changes of direction on gentle terrain.

Type II skiers are skiers who have skied 6 or more times or who can make turns, stop without using a wedge and feel relatively comfortable while skiing.

Type III skiers will ski aggressively, normally at faster speeds.  They prefer steeper and more challenging terrain.


How to dress:
The most effective material for maintaining heat and drawing moisture away from the body is polypropylene or silk blends, wool blends, or fleece.  It is also important to wear layers to maintain your body heat and keep dry.  Bib pants are recommended as the best way to keep your legs warm.  In deep powder snow gaiters are recommended.

Here is a list of possible substitutes for ski clothing:
        Any type of long sleeve shirt that has a tight neck.
        Tight, knit sweaters and/or flannel shirts.
        Flannel pajamas.
        Nylon wind jackets or rain suits.
        Any type of jacket that will resist water.
        Hats that cover your ears; wearing hats helps keep your feet warm.
        Sports Sunglasses.- Goggles (especially with high winds or during snow blowing operations)
        Gloves with waterproofing applied.


There are four basic skills that we can develop or improve or develop by performing pre-season training.  These are control precision-(controlling your movement in the legs, feet, abdomen, and arm-hand), multi-limb coordination-(which is coordinating the movements of the limbs and the trunk), rate control-(making adjustments in speed and direction), and balance and reaction time-(improving the ability to stay in balance or to increase the speed of response).


Before you go skiing, make sure that you know your limits and ski in control, check the release function of your ski bindings, be aware of the ski conditions, be aware of slope safety, and make sure you wear the appropriate clothing.

Make sure that when you are skiing that you do not wear breakable equipment such as sunglasses or goggles.  Make sure you do not stop in narrow places on the trail.  Do not enter a trail without first looking to see if it is clear.  Do not consume alcohol while skiing.


Modern ski equipment has improved greatly over the years.  Choosing the equipment that best suites your needs requires an honest analysis of your present ability and your goals.  Most manufacturers produce a line of products divided into categories for: a) the developing skier, b) the advanced or athletic skier, and c) for the aggressive or the competitive skier.  Ski equipment is a personal decision and should be based on how often you will ski, how fast you ski, what radius of turns you prefer, and what the typical snow conditions are.



There are basic ways that skies slide over the snow.  Sliding is one way which consists of the skis moving straight ahead or in the direction of the tip.  Slipping occurs when the skis move sideways.  Skidding is a combination of sliding and slipping, the tail of the ski skids more than the tip and results in a curved path.

 SLIDING                       SLIPPING                                            SKIDDING


Rotary movements are used when you start a turn.  This is when you get the skies started in a new direction.  This movement can take place with the feet, knees, hips, spine, head or any combination of the above.  Examples of rotary movements include foot rotation, stemming, stepping, and rotation.

Edging movements are caused by simple spreading of the feet, ankle angulation movements, knee angulation, and hip angulation.

Pressure control movements are movements such as weight transfer, leverage, unweighting, and retraction or absorption.

Traversing is when you cross the slope at an angle to the fall line.  When crossing the slope, the skis are parallel and on their uphill edges.  The uphill ski is advanced slightly (4”) while more weight is on the downhill ski.

A side slip is movement down or at an angle to the slope with the skis perpendicular to the fall line.  The skis slip sideways rather than forward.  This slippage is controlled by lateral knee movement (known as edging).  Flatten the skis on the snow and allow to slip.  Edging is accomplished by pushing the knees into the hill.  The down motion will stop the slippage.  It is essential that the upper body face the direction of the slide slip.  Set the edge to stop, release the edge to slide.

Balancing movements are when the feet and lower body are ready to move in any direction.  The upper body makes minimal movement (quiet upper body) and the arms are used for balance but as quietly as possible.  The upper and lower body function together with the hip area serving as a central point.  Balancing is a reflex action and receives signals from the inner ear, the pressure of the soles of the feet, and from visual cues.

Your Responsibility Code

 1. Always stay in control and be able to stop or avoid other people or objects.
 2. People ahead of you have the right of way.  It is your responsibility to avoid them.
 3. You must not stop where you obstruct a trail or are not visible from above.
 4. Whenever starting downhill or merging into a trail, look uphill and yield to others.
 5. Always use devices to help prevent runaway equipment.
 6. Observe all posted signs and warnings.  Keep off closed trails and out of closed areas.
 7. Prior to using any lift, you must have the knowledge and ability to load, ride, and unload safely.