Citation Examples

Whichever type of citation and documentation you are required to use for a paper, it is vital that you pay attention to the intricacies of citation and documentation style - not only do proper citation and documentation ensure that you do not inadvertently plagiarize, they also make your writing look more professional and credible to your audience.

There is no way on earth you will be able to memorize the citation format for each of the many types of sources you'll come across. We have provided a short list of citation examples for the most commonly used sources below. This is by no means a comprehensive list, so here is yet another reason to get your own copy of 7th edition of the Turabian book. But first, let's take a look at the different formats of citation.

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formats of turabian citation/documentation

Footnotes and Endnotes

Footnote and Endnote citations are practically identical. Both use sequentially numbered superscripts to mark the citation in the text, and in both cases the notes are listed numerically. The only difference is that footnotes are listed at the bottom of the page in which the citation occurs, while endnotes are listed at the end of the document.

Parenthetical Citations

Parenthetical citations are the only form of internal citation in Turabian style (by "internal" we mean that as each source is cited, the author and page number are documented within the text of the document, at the end of the relevant passage). As the name implies, parenthetical citations are placed in parentheses, at the end of the sentence or group of sentences that cite the source, but before the period. Each parenthetical citatation contains the author's last name and year of publication, followed by the page number of the work cited.


....As one may expect, it is not necessarily personal experience with the taste of liver that makes it so unpopular with students. In fact, the majority of college students have probably never tried liver: according to a survey of students at three Tennessee universities, only 4% of students report having knowingly eaten liver at some point in their lives, while an overwhelming 94% stated that they hated the organ meat (Geese 2003, 67).


Works Cited/Bibliography Pages

Every paper you turn in must have a Works Cited page. Even if you have provided footnotes, the works cited page (in Turabian format called a "bibliography" when used with footnote style) is important because it provides the reader with an organized compilation of the resources you used for your paper. In papers with parenthetical citations, the works cited page (in Turabian format called a "reference list" when used with parenthetical-reference style) is vital as it provides the only source of complete bibliographic information for your sources. Works Cited pages list each source alphabetically by the author's last name.

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examples of common citations

These are examples of citations for commonly used sources. For complete instructions on citing a more comprehensive array of sources, please refer to A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7th edition by Kate L. Turabian.


Book With One Author 

1. Gregory S. Hunter, Developing and Maintaining Practical Archives, 2nd ed. (Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 2005), 46.
Parenthetical Citation:
(Hunter 2005, 46).
Bibliography Page:
Hunter, Gregory S. Developing and Maintaining Practical Archives. 2nd ed. Chicago:     Society of American Archivists, 2005.
Reference List
Hunter, Gregory S. 2005. Developing and maintaining practical archives. 2nd ed. Chicago:     Society of American Archivists.


Book With Multiple Authors

Footnote/Endnote (2-3 Authors):
1. Mary F. Robeck, Gerald F. Brown, and David J. Stephens, Information and Records Management: Document-Based Information Systems, 4th ed. (New York: Glencoe/McGraw Hill, 1995), 25.
Footnote/Endnote (4+ Authors):
1. Lawrence Grossberg et al., Media Making: Mass Media in Popular Culture 2nd ed. (London: Sage Publications, 2006), 225.
Parenthetical Citation (2-3 Authors):
(Robeck, Brown, and Stephens 1995, 25).
Parenthetical Citation (4+ Authors):
(Grossberg et al. 2006, 225)
Bibliography (2 or more Authors):
Grossberg, Lawrence, Ellen Wartella, D. Charles Whitney, and J. MacGregor Wise. Media     Making: Mass Media in Popular Culture. 2nd ed. London: Sage Publications, 2006.
Reference List (2 or more Authors
Robeck, Mary F., Gerald F. Brown, and David J. Stephens. 1995. Information and records     management: Document-based information systems. 4th ed. New York: Glencoe/McGraw Hill.


Book With Editor(s) (No Author Listed)

Footnote/Endnote: 1. Steven Davidson and Gregory Lukow, eds., The Administration of Television, Newsfilm, and Videotape Collections: A Curatorial Manual (Los Angeles: American Film Institute, 1997), 112.
Parenthetical Citation: (Davidson and Lukow 1997, 112).
Bibliography: Davidson, Steven and Gregory Lukow, eds. The Administration of Television, Newsfilm, and     Videotape Collections: A Curatorial Manual. Los Angeles: American Film Institute, 1997.
Reference List: Davidson, Steven and Gregory Lukow, eds. 1997 The administration of television, newsfilm,     and videotape collections: A curatorial manual. Los Angeles: American Film Institute.


Chapter of a Book with a Single Author

Footnote/Endonte: 1. Ross Abbinnett, "Baudrillard: Media and Simulation,"in Culture and Identity: Critical Theories (London: Sage Publications, 2003), 39.
Parenthetical Citation: (Abbinnett 2003, 39)
Bibliography: Abbinnett, Ross. "Baudrillard: Media and Simulation." In Culture and Identity: Critical Theories,     35-42. London: Sage Publications, 2003.
Reference List: Abbinnett, Ross. 2003. Baudrillard: Media and simulation. In Culture and identity: Critical     theories, 35-42. London: Sage Publications.


Chapter of an Edited Book of Essay Collections

Footnote/Endnote: 1. Jeffrey D. Morelli, "Defining Electronic Records: Problems of Terminology," in History and Electronic Artifacts, ed. Edward Higgs (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998), 180.
Parenthetical Citation: (Morelli 1998, 180).
Bibliography: Morelli, Jeffrey D. "Defining Electronic Records: Problems of Terminology." In History and     Electronic Artifacts, edited by Edward Higgs, 175-193. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.
Reference List: Morelli, Jeffrey D. 1998. Defining electronic records: Problems of terminology. In History and     electronic artifacts, ed. Edward Higgs, 175-93. Oxford: Clarendon Press.


Journal Article

Footnote/Endnote: 1. Cynthia Baron, "Dinner and a Movie: Analyzing Food and Film," Food, Culture, and Society 9, no. 1 (Spring 2006): 99.
Parenthetical Citation: (Baron 2006, 99).
Bibliography: Baron, Cynthia. "Dinner and a Movie: Analyzing Food and Film." Food, Culture, and Society 9, no.     1 (Spring 2006): 94-117.
Reference List: Baron, Cynthia. 2006. Dinner and a movie: Analyzing food and film. Food, Culture, and Society     9, no. 1 (Spring): 94-117.



Journal Article Published Online

Special Note About Online Articles: Along with the standard journal information, you must provide the necessary electronic access information for any article retrieved online. In most cases, this consists of the stable URL and the date that you accessed the article. If you found the article through a database such as JSTOR or Gale, the stable URL often is NOT what appears in your browser toolbar. Usually, you can locate the stable URL in the bibliographic record on the database. A stable URL is important to maximize the likelihood that readers can locate your source.

About DOI's: As more and more documents such as journal articles come to be available online, an alternative form of location to the stable URL has come into being. This is the DOI, or "Digital Object Identifier." A DOI is a unique code assigned to an electronic document (including audio, video, and multimedia files) so that it can be identified and located in the future. This system came about because it is quite common for information associated with a digital document to change (e.g., URL, which database or company offers access). A DOI, on the other hand, will never change. Think of it as a social security number for documents. For more information than you will likely ever need on DOI's, please visit the DOI System Web site.

Online Journal Article with Stable URL

Footnote/Endnote: 1.Lesley Instone, "Eating the Country," Journal of Australian Studies 86 (January 2006): 140, AONE=A16279049 (accessed April 13, 2008).
Parenthetical Citation: (Instone 2006, 140).
Bibliography: Instone, Lesley. "Eating the Country." Journal of Australian Studies 86 (January 2006): 135-141.
   ID=T002&prodId= AONE=A16279049 (accessed April 13, 2008).
Reference List: Instone, Lesley. 2006. Eating the country. Journal of Australian Studies 86 (January): 135-141.
    T002&prodid=AONE=A16279049 (accessed April 13, 2008).


Online Journal Article with assigned DOI

Footnote/Endnote: 1. Eddy Little, "Insect Wing Velocity Effects on the Caterwalling Response," Journal of Feline Behavioral Science 1, no. 4 (Summer 2008): 77, doi 34.0005/3900-48276.99.88 (accessed February 29, 2009).
Parenthetical Citation: (Little 2008, 77).
Bibliography: Little, Eddy. "Insect Wing Velocity Effects on the Caterwauling Response." Journal of Feline     Behavioral Science 1, no. 4 (Summer 2008):75-89. doi 34.0005/3900-48276.99.98 (accessed     February 29, 2009).
Reference List: Little, Eddy. 2008 Insect wing velocity effects on the caterwauling response. Journal of     Feline Behavioral Science 1, no. 4 (Summer): 75-89. doi 34.0005/3900-48276.99.98 (accessed     February 29, 2009).


Web Site

Footnote/Endnote: 1. Society of American Archivists Council, "Code of Ethics for Archivists," Society of American Archivists, (accessed March 9, 2009).
Parenthetical Citation: For information on Web Sites that do not have a specifically stated date of publication, work your citation into the text. For example, you might say, "According to the United States Copyright Office Web Site,.........."
Bibliography: Society of American Archivists Council. "Code of Ethics for Archivists." Society of American     Archivists. (accessed March     9, 2009).
Reference List: Society of American Archivists Council. Code of ethics for archivists. Society of American     Archivists. (accessed March     9, 2009).



Special Note About E-Books - While the Turabian manual offers no specific citation guidelines for e-books, you must include the full bibliographic data of the book just as you would in citing a print book. Additionally, you should provide the Web site URL that you used to access the e-book and the date you first accessed the item.

Footnote/Endnote: 1. Aleš Erjavec ed., Postmodernism and the Postsocialist Condition: Politicized Art Under Late Socialism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003), 34.
Parenthetical: (Erjavec 2003, 34).
Bibliography: Erjavec, Aleš ed. Postmodernism and the Postsocialist Condition: Politicized Art Under Late     Socialism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. (accessed     September 15, 2009).
Reference List: Erjavec, Aleš ed. 2003. Postmodernism and the postsocialist condition: Politicized art under     late socialism. Berkeley: University of California Press. (accessed     September 15, 2009).


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