|Chapter||1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10|
|Chapter 1||What Is Numerical Control & What Does It Do?|
|CAD/CAM, Computers, and Marriage
Where Do People Fit In?
COMPACT II and APT
What Comprises an N/C System?
Feedback: Open vs. Closed Loops
Where Did N/C Come From?
CNC: Computerized N/C
Direct Numerical Control
Is N/C Automation and Vice Versa?
What are the Advantages of N/C?
What are the Disadvantages of N/C?
|Chapter 2||How Does Numerical Control Work?|
| What Moves--The Cutter or the Workpiece?
Getting Oriented: Axes, Directions, Locations, and Positioning
Which Axis is Which?
Which Direction is Which?
Locating the Cutting Tool Point
Absolute vs. Incremental Positioning
N/C Formats and Grammar
Blocks & Statements
Fixed Sequential Format
Tab Sequential Format
Word Address Format
Modal vs. Nonmodal Commands
Cutting Tool Length
Tool Length Offset (TLO)
Subroutines and Loops
Branching Commands and Subroutines
Four Essential N/C Program Elements:
Where to go, How to go, How fast, & What to do
|Chapter 3||Programming: Making N/C Do What You Want|
|Preparatory Functions and Codes
Cutting Tool Motion Commands
Linear Cutter Motion
The Cutter Radius
Circular (Arc) Cutter Motion
Automatic Tool Changing
Spindle Speed Selection
Controlling Spindle Speed
What Is the Right RPM?
Heat & Cutting Tool Life
Feedrate Commands & Economics
Determining the Ideal Feedrate
Material Removal Rate (MRR)
Material Removal Factor (MRF)
|Chapter 4||Feeding the Controller|
|Of Bits & Bytes in the Digital Age
Binary Coded Decimal
N/C Tape Codes
Parity: Which Code is Which?
N/C Tape Readers
|Chapter 5||The Preliminaries of Programming|
|The Part Drawing
Notes, Symbols, and Title Block Specifications
The Purchase Order
Which N/C Machine to Use
Holding The Workpiece
Selection of Cutting Tools
Where to Change Cutters and Workpieces
Where to Start the Cutter From
What to Machine First
To Climb or Not to Climb, That is the Question
Updated Jan. 14, 2005
Copyright © 1988, 2001-2005 by George Stanton and Bill Hemphill
All Rights Reserved